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Multiple specialist areas of research and thought inform the development of PLAN E. ‘Entangled Security’ is itself a new way of thinking which requires new words, plus learning the ‘lingo’ of a wide variety of specialists. A glossary can help us in the difficult task of understanding each other, coordinating, and developing synergistic solutions.

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Actor network theory (ANT) (sociology, Bruno Latour, Michel Callon, John Law). A theory which places primacy upon the relationships between actors, objects and ideas. Relations are understood as the dominant meaning-making influence or shaper of reality – rather than ‘things’ (Latour 2005).
Affective inequality (social justice, equality studies, Kathleen Lynch). Relating to the workload of showing caring and concern for others, and the impact this has on those conducting this typically unpaid work.  “As love, care and solidarity involve work, affective inequality… occurs when the burdens and benefits of these forms of work are unequally distributed, and when this unequal distribution often deprives those who do the love, care and solidarity work of important human goods, including an adequate livelihood and care itself” (Lynch 2009 p.411).
Affective security / insecurity (introduced this thesis). Affective security refers to feeling ‘safe’ – physically, socially, and psychologically. It involves a sense of epistemological and ontological stability.  Care contributes to affective security. Affective insecurity is the opposite, a sense or feeling of being ill at ease, anxious, worried, unsafe, threatened, or uncertain in the world for a range of physical, emotional, psycho-social or philosophical reasons. 
Afrofuturism (race studies). African future studies which draw upon science-fiction, technology and empowerment. “Reimagining of a future filled with arts, science and technology seen through a black lens” (Dery 1994).  Also used to refer to African-American future studies (Womack 2013, Ko and Ko 2017).
Agential realism  (post-human philosophy, Karen Barad). Draws from quantum- physics and the behaviour of atoms to derived new philosophical concepts. It is post-human as it assumes the ‘laws of matter’ have more authority than human speculations. Involves a view that human perception is inherently limited because it is reliant upon conceptual or practical ‘apparatus’ to measure reality; which in turn shapes what is seen and known. Thus, human thought interacts with matter and ‘others’ in a dynamical way. This implies knowing and being as fluid concepts, rather than static notions. Agential realism contends that all creatures and matter interact in a way in which they cannot avoid ‘cutting’ or ‘marking’ the other; accordingly, this introduces an ethical and justice dimension.
Aggrieved entitlement  (men’s studies, Michael Kimmel). Refers to “that sense that those benefits to which you believed yourself entitled have been snatched away from you by unseen forces larger and more powerful.” Part of Michael Kimmel’s exploration of ‘angry white man’ dynamics within the US (Kimmel 2013 p.18).
Aphro-ism (race studies). Reflections on the interconnections between race, feminism and animals studies (Ko and Ko 2017).
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)  (international relations). Comprises: Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Vietnam. 
Asymmetric warfare  (military). Depicts warfare where there is a marked difference in competing military forces size, capability and tactics. Typically used to describe guerrilla style harassing tactics used against conventional military forces, such as in the Vietnam War 1955-1975.
Biomass  (ecology).  The total quantity or weight of organisms in a given area or volume. Biomass refers to the total ‘amount’ of all living biological organisms (flora, fauna, microorganisms, plants or animals) within a particular location or ecosystem at a particular time.
Biome (ecology). A large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g. forest or tundra.
Biosphere (earth science). Living matter, in air, oceans, soil. Fauna, Flora, Microorganisms.
Biota (ecology). The animal and plant life of a region, habitat, or geological period.  Biota is like Biomass, however it is generally used when referring to large total amounts, for example, the ‘planetary total’ of a particular type of species (or variety of species).
Centre of gravity (COG)  (military). Official: The primary entity that possesses the inherent capability to achieve an objective or the desired end state (ADF, 2018, p.2-7). Alternate:  A dynamic and powerful physical or moral agent of action or influence with certain qualities and capabilities that derive their benefit from a given location or terrain (ADF 2014). Historic: The key characteristic, capability or locality from which a military force, nation or alliance derives its freedom of action, strength or will to fight at that level of conflict (Jackson, 2017). Layperson: The feature which gives a threat or military force its primary power and capability to achieve its objective.
Chaos theory  (physics, atmospheric science, Mitchell Feigenbaum, Edward Lorenz). A science of process rather than state. Features Edward Lorenz’s Butterfly Effect – the idea that a microscopically small influence at system starting point might set in place magnitudes of change which dramatically influence the final outcome (Lorenz 1979). Through mapping an apparently chaotic system (atmospheric convection), Lorenz was able to prove that there is order in many complex systems and that components of a system may be ‘attracted’ to a pattern (Lorenz, 1963) – the ‘strange attractor’ idea. In 1991, Lorenz won the Kyoto prize for this work which profoundly influenced weather and climate research: it led to the realisation that weather and climate prediction was possible, and perhaps birthed the field of science of weather and climate prediction.   
Climate and environmental change (CEC)  (introduced in this thesis). Vast scholarship surrounds the terms ‘environment’ and ‘nature,’ and whether ‘climate’ is a sub-set of ‘environment’ or not, in both science, but also history and philosophy  (Warde, Robin et al. 2018). Definitions about the non-human physical world are complicated by humans being mammals and thus a part of those biological systems. Further, human definitions of ‘nature’ or the ‘environment’ can be highly contextual, for example modern people’s perception of the environment may erase colonial influences and hark back to a pre-climate era which may no longer be attainable (Christoff, 2016). The physical world is referred to vicariously as global change; the Anthropocene; environmental change; the biosphere; or the living planet. Therefore, to clarify, in this thesis, CEC is a simpler term, focused upon physical aspects. CEC denotes two broad bodies of knowledge: that around global warming (climate change science); and environmental science which reports on the conditions of the non-human world. Accordingly, CEC encompasses the atmosphere; hydrosphere; lithosphere; pedosphere; and biosphere. CEC refers to the non-human, even though it is acknowledged that humans are a part of the ‘environment.’
Cold war (1947 to 1991)  (international relations, security and defence studies). Security tensions principally between the two global ‘super-powers’– the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the USA. There was no direct major violent conflict, but the two states competed through proxy wars, espionage and through diplomatic and economic means. The stand-off featured the doctrine of ‘mutually assured destruction’ (MAD) – whereby matching military and nuclear warfare capacity was viewed as a method of deterrence. The dispute also related to differing economic and governance systems: an eastern communist/socialist model versus western capitalist democracy.
Concept of operations (CONOPS) (military). It is an explanation of the rationale and method to achieve a stated objective. It may describe thematic areas of focus, specific tactics, operations, and sequencing of events. The aim of the ‘CONOPS’ is to allow people to understand the over-arching approach.
Continuity of war  (military, security studies). A generic phrase which connects to ideas on change, and the influence of the past. For example, it may consider how tactics, strategies or motives persist through different conflicts. It also deliberates upon whether war and conflict are inevitable aspects of human nature or not (Gray 2010).
Continuous discourse (see also Agential Realism)  (post-human philosophy, Karen Barad). Drawing upon quantum physics, Barad finds that ‘matter’ (human and non-human) defines itself through an iterative conversation (discourse) with other ‘matter.’ She writes: “In an agential realist account, discursive practices are not human-based activities but specific material (re) configurations of the world through which boundaries, properties, and meanings are differentially enacted (Barad, 2007 p.183).” Because existence or matter at the quantum level is continually reforming through intra-action with ‘other’ matter, this means that meaning must also be continually being re-worked. Accordingly, accurate framing requires continuous discourse among various ‘others’ and matter, with matter represented as best as is possible.
Cosmopolitanism (Ancient Greek philosopher, Diogenes of Sinope c. 412 B.C.). The Greek origin of the word means ‘citizen of the world.’ The idea of all human beings being connected at social and ethical levels. Used by Ulrich Beck to describe sociological aspects of globalisation (Beck 2006).
Counterinsurgency (COIN)  (military). A security strategy which aims to combine civil and military methods to contain insurgencies and address root causes of conflict. Like irregular warfare, the battle for the ‘hearts and minds’ of the population is paramount.
Creation care  (religious environmentalism, eco-theology). A term widely used across the world’s major religions to describe human stewardship responsibilities towards Earth. It embodies the idea that all forms of life and matter on earth are sacred, integrally connected with human physical and spiritual wellbeing, and that it is human’s spiritual duty to care for them (McFague 2008, Abdul-Matin 2010, Hanh 2013, Francis 2015, Islamic Relief Worldwide 2015)

Critical discourse analysis (CDA)

(linguistics, sociolinguistics). “Systematic transdisciplinary analysis of relations between discourse and other elements of the social process” (Fairclough 2013 p.10). Examines the role of discourse in the (re) production and challenge of dominance. Dominance here is defined as the exercise of social power by elites, institutions or groups, that results in social inequality, including political, cultural, class, ethnic, racial and gender inequality (Van Dijk 1993 pp. 249-250).
Critters (ecofeminism, Donna Haraway). A deliberately affectionate term for animals, insects and general forms of life on Earth, including humans. The word intends to convey an ‘affective sensibility’ or emotional knowing that places value upon all forms of life. It also emphasises that the connection between humans and other forms of life is one of care and joy (Haraway 2008). Accordingly, the word embodies a philosophical outlook. Similar words include the term companion species (Haraway 2003) and kin (Haraway 2016).
Decisive point  (military). A significant operational milestone that exists in time and space or the information domain which constitutes a key event, essential task, critical factor or function that, when executed or affected, allows a commander to gain a marked advantage, or contributes to achieving success.  (ADF, 2018 p.2-10).
Deep ecology (environmental and ecological philosophy). (Naess 1973, Devall and Sessions 1985). It is a philosophy which draws from a range of environmental ethicists, including St Francis of Assisi and Baruch Spinoza, and numerous since the 1970s, which view humans as integrally connected to the non-human world, not just biologically, but also philosophically and ethically. Inspired by Rachel Carson (Carson 1962) and Val Plumwood (Plumwood 1975), the field was pioneered by Arne Naess (Naess 1973), who first described it as "biological equalitarianism" (Naess 1973). Later Bill Devall described it as a worldview of the “…person-in-nature. The person is not above or outside of nature…The person cares for and about nature…” (Devall 2001 p.6)  Incorporates ideas about harmonious relations between individuals, communities and nature.  
Design thinking  (architecture, product design). Team-based approaches to innovation, which deliberately involve diverse participants, from practioners, end-users, and customers to a wide range of other disciplinary experts. Focuses upon reconceiving ‘how’ a desired outcome can be achieved, rather than improving extant methods. Design approaches have grown “from a trade activity to a segmented profession to a field for technical research and to what now should be recognized as a new liberal art of technological culture” (Buchanan 1992). Design methods create spaces for creative exploration and experimentation, ideation, disruptive thinking and involve frequent sharing of stories among participants to facilitate integration (Brown 2008).
Disaggregated battlespace  (military). Circumstances whereby military forces, adversaries and non-combatants may be distributed across vast and geographic and spatial areas, for example, desert areas, urban areas, air, sea, land, cyber or space.
Discourse analysis  (sociolinguistics, but also used widely across multiple disciplines, for example, anthropology, ethnomethodology, cognitive and social psychology, communication studies and law). How language, both spoken and written, enacts social and cultural perspectives and identities (Gee 2004).
Dispersal (military). The geographic spreading out or separating of troops, materiel, establishments, or activities, which are usually concentrated in one location, in order to reduce vulnerability and exposure to threat impacts. “Relocation of forces for the purpose of increasing survivability” (US DOD, 2020 p.66).
Dominant culture  (sociology). Is one whose values, language, and ways of behaving are imposed on a subordinate culture or cultures through economic or political power (Scott and Marshall 2009 p.190).
Dominant narrative  (communication studies). The narrative which influences political decision-making and large-scale population behaviour or attitudes. The narrative is accepted, implemented and resourced.  Embodies the dominant culture, described above. 
Dual logic (introduced in this thesis). The notion that there are two major threat related reasons why CEC must be urgently addressed: to prevent dangerous global warming and to reduce geopolitical conflict relating to resources, especially fossil fuel access.
Ecological intelligence  (psychology). Refers to an understanding of organisms and their ecosystems, and the capacity to learn from experience and deal effectively with the environment. Goleman emphasises being knowledgeable about the ecological impact of purchasing decisions and lifestyle choices (Goleman 2010).
Eco-linguistics (ecology / linguistics).  The study of interactions between any given language and its environment. (Haugen 1971 p.325)
Eco-literacy / environmental literacy  (environmental education). “The ability to comprehend interrelatedness and the attitude of care or stewardship. Implies a broad understanding of how people and societies relate to one another and to natural systems, and how they might do so sustainably” (Orr 1992).
Ethico-onto-epistem-ology  (Agential realism, Karen Barad). “…an appreciation of the intertwining of ethics, knowing and being” (Barad 2007 p.185). To explain, ‘matter’ may impact other ‘matter’ physically, but also in terms of identity (ontology) and knowing (epistemology). Further, the inevitability of intra-action means that there is also an ethical (ethico) component.
Forgotten solution (see also natural climate solutions, NCS)  (ecology, environmental advocacy). In social media the hashtag #forgottensolution and #NaturalClimateSoutions refers colloquially to failure of climate policy to consider the rehabilitation of ecosystems, especially forests, as significant pathways to reduce GHG emissions. It is a stance critical of approaches which gravitate towards grand technological solutions, which through having stronger corporate advocacy, skew resourcing away from viable low-tech solutions like ecosystem rehabilitation. Links to UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration 2021 – 2030 (G). 
Gaia hypothesis, Gaia theory  (environmental science, James Lovelock). The idea that Earth behaves as a superorganism, made up from all  living things and  their material environment (Lovelock 1972, Lovelock 1991, Lovelock 2006, Lovelock 2009).
Gift economy  (social and cultural anthropology, David Cheal). “A system of redundant transactions within a moral economy, which makes possible the extended reproduction of social relations” (Cheal 1988 p.19). Contrasts with a ‘market economy’ in that short-term profits are secondary to long-term interests. ‘Redundant’ means there may not be a profit advantage, however, there are considerable benefits to social relationships. Case study analysis revealed gift-giving was significant in late 20th century modern industrial society, (not only pre-industrial societies), and that it was more prevalent among women.
Grand narrative  (biblical studies; sociology; history; post-modernism). A term widely used to describe an over-arching sense making story or meta-narrative, for example, Islamism; Christianity; Colonisation; Emancipation in a Apartheid context; Civilization and progress; the Enlightenment; or ‘Secularisation and modernisation’ (Clark, 2012). As defined in the Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, it involves a critical perspective: “A term imperfectly translated from Jean-François Lyotard’s influential account of postmodernism in La Condition postmoderne (1979), in which he condemns big bad ‘totalizing’ theories and systems of thought, principally Marxism and Hegelianism. These are ‘big stories’ (grands récits) which claim to explain everything, whereas the postmodern condition, by which Lyotard means the hoped-for next phase of thought, will be characterized by a rejection of such systems in favour of harmless micro-narratives (petits récits) that do not make any claim to anything so ‘authoritarian’ as truth” (Baldick, 2015) (Lyotard, 1984). In a security context, a grand narrative is often paired with a grand strategy, where it provides the underpinning explanatory, and often ideological, rationale.  
Grand strategy (also see strategy)  (International relations, political science, military and security studies). Although the term is widely used and explored, in the literature, there is no sole agreed definition. In a military context, Liddell Hart’s definition is often  a discursive start point, whereby “the role of grand strategy is to co-ordinate and direct  all the resources of a nation towards the attainment of the political object of the war: the goal defined by national policy… fighting power is but one of the instruments.. It should take account of and apply the power of financial pressure, diplomatic pressure, commercial pressure, and, not least, ethical pressure to weaken the opponent’s will” (Liddell Hart, 1929). Silove proposes that broadly scholars agree that grand strategy “is long-term in scope, concerned with the State’s most important priorities, and inclusive of all spheres of statecraft (military, diplomatic, and economic.” She further proposes it takes three forms: a plan; a set of principles or a pattern of behaviour (Silove, 2018). Brands adds that it may not always be consciously intentional (Brands, 2014); while Layton emphasises the objective of wishing to shape future events, rather than be shaped by them; looking past war to a “a preferred construct that displays the desired orderliness and stability.”  Layton suggests, that in contrast to the reactive nature of risk management, grand strategy is pro-active; it is creative in that it may involve creating the ‘means’ to achieve desired ‘ends’ (Layton, 2012, Layton, 2018).
Grey zone  (international relations, defence, military). The space between peace and warfare. “Grey zone conflict is best understood as activity that is coercive and aggressive in nature, but that is deliberately designed to remain below the threshold of conventional military conflict and open interstate war” (Brands 2016).

Green militarization

(environmental conservation). “The use of military and paramilitary (military-like) actors, techniques, technologies, and partnerships, in the pursuit of conservation” (Lunstrum 2014 p.817).
Hegemonic masculinity  (gender studies). The idea that the social and political dominance of a particular type of heterosexual masculinity is the rightful and natural order. The word ‘hegemony’ emphasises that this dominance is achieved not by force, but by all members of society being convinced that this is ‘just the way things are.’ Generally involves a hierarchical conception of types of masculinity, and often the idea of masculinity as superior to femininity (Hearn 2004, Connell and Messerschmidt 2005).
Hothouse Earth

 (climate science, see also Safe Earth). Over 4600 million years, Earth’s state has shifted between an icehouse or snowball Earth state to a greenhouse or hothouse Earth state. Hothouse Earth conditions see no glaciers, and compared to pre-industrial baselines, sea-level rise is at least 10 to 60 metres higher, while global mean surface temperature is at least 4-5 degrees higher. Cascading tipping points could cause Earth system dynamics to prematurely enter the Hothouse pathway (Figure 1), a state “inhospitable to current human societies and to many other contemporary species” (Steffen, Rockström et al. 2018 pp.8253-4). Contrasts to the alternate Stabilized earth pathway, referred to in this thesis as safe earth.

Figure 1:  Pathways of the Earth System out of the Holocene period

(Steffen, Rockström et al. 2018 pp.8253-4).

Hot peace  (international relations, security studies). Used as a contrast to the term ‘Cold War.’ Describes the geopolitical environment when there is low threat of conventional military attack, but aggression may occur through multiple minor actions, such as subtle economic, diplomatic, cultural or information operations which seek to erode nation-state strength, cohesion and confidence.
Human, gender and environmental security (HUGE)  (environmental security, Úrsula Oswald-Spring). HUGE examines five types of security concurrently: national; societal; human; environmental and gender. Its approach to gender does not reference the UN women, peace and security (WPS) agenda.  (Oswald Spring 2009).
Hydrosphere  (earth Science).  Water cycle.
Hypercapitalism (family psychology and parenting, Stephen Biddulph).   Discusses effects of ‘hypercapitalism’ upon family life and children, whereby “kids and their simple fundamental needs – for time, security, affection – are the enemies of efficient living” (Biddulph 2018).
Hyperobject (post-human philosophy, Timothy Morton.) “Things that are massively distributed in time and space relative to humans” (Morton 2013 p.1). They have five characteristics: viscosity; nonlocality; temporal undulation; phasing and interobjectivity.
Hyperthreat (introduced in this thesis). Draws from Timothy Morton’s hyperobject theory. Refers to the harmful impacts of climate and environmental change (CEC). Exact definition:  The hyperthreat of climate change and environmental degradation has warlike destructive capabilities that are so diffuse that it is hard to see the enormity of the destruction coherently nor who is responsible for its hostile actions. It defies existing human thought and institutional constructs. It is powered and energised by three key enablers; its invisibility, its ability to evade all existing human threat-response mechanisms, and by human hesitancy––the slower humans are to act, the stronger it becomes (Boulton 2018).
Immersive virtual environments (IVE)  (multi-media). An interactive, computer generated visual and auditory environment. Typically people wear headphones and eyewear to ‘experience’ a simulated version of reality. Similar terms and technologies include: Virtual Reality (VR); while Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality combine IVE/VR with real worlds.
Information (military). Information that is unevaluated, unprocessed data of any description that may be used in the production of intelligence. (Australian Defence Doctrine Publication, ADDP 2.0 Intelligence.)
Interobjective (eco-philosophy, Timothy Morton.) One of the five hyperobject characteristics, describes the indirect way in which the hyperobject exerts influence – through other objects, while it remains hidden or unseen.
Intelligence (military). It is the result of a process involving the evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of disparate pieces of information, usually in conjunction with existing information and intelligence, to attempt to clarify a situation and produce meaningful conclusions, assessments and predictions in response to the decision maker’s intelligence needs (Australian Defence Doctrine Publication, ADDP 2.0 Intelligence).

Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC)

(climate change science). The United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change.
Intersectionality (gender, race and general equality studies). Considering how a variety of issues such as gender, class, culture, race, ethnicity, being able-bodied or not, and age collectively impact upon identity and socio-political economic opportunity (Collins and Bilge 2016)
Intra-active  (post-human philosophy, Karen Barad). Distinct from ‘interaction,’ which describes the idea of two distinct, separately formed identities meeting and engaging, ‘intra-action’ is the idea that both entities are partly formed through their ongoing interaction with each other.  “Intra-action signifies the mutual constitution of entangled agencies... distinct agencies do not precede, but rather emerge through, their intra-action” (Barad 2007 p.35).
Irregular warfare  (military). Contest between a State and non-state actors, which involves violent means, but also has important ideological, cultural and political dimensions whereby wining population support is a key objective.
Joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment (JIPOE)  (military). Describes the common picture created by intelligence agencies, and other experts to support JMAP military planning. It is the best-available synthesised information on the threat, the threat environment and on any other aspects relevant to the analysis and planning activity. Official: “JIPOE and JMAP are mutually supportive. The purpose of JIPOE is to gain and maintain situational understanding for the commander and staff and to provide indications and assessments of future threat activity likely to adversely affect the mission or friendly force” (ADF, 2016 p.1-6).
Joint military appreciation process (JMAP) (military). A method of group-based threat analysis and operational planning used widely by militaries across the world. In the Australian Defence Force context, ‘Joint’ refers to tri-service or a Navy, Army, Air Force planning environment. Official: “…used for joint campaign and operation planning… The JMAP produces a concept of operations (conops) that can subsequently be used to form the basis of an operation plan” (ADF, 2016 p 1-1).
Kinetic military operations  (military). (Kinetic action, tactics etc). Refers to the active use of violent military force, such as firing weapons, conducting land, sea or air attacks. Actions designed to cause harm; be lethal and/or destroy facilities, equipment or vehicles. (Non-kinetic might refer to deception measures, or information activities.)
Lebensraum (German word for "living space"). Used within German International Relations (IR) and security policy to refer to the states need for agricultural land and resources to support its population. Infamous for being part of the Nazi Party’s rationale for invasion of other countries. Now broadly used to refer to the material security needs of states, which impose pressures on other states.
Liberation theory  (gender and race studies). A non-hierarchical conception of identity, whereby entities exist on their own terms and have intrinsic value. Focused upon groups perceived as marginalised by dominant hegemonic masculinity cultural constructs, which includes indigenous people; people of colour; women; queer people; disabled or physically impaired people; non-hegemonic masculinities and ‘nature.’  In some literature, it assumes ‘white males’ are not oppressed. In this thesis, the term includes insights from masculinity studies related to the negative impacts of rigid gender constructs upon males.  
Line of effort (LOE) (military). A combination of multiple tasks and missions which are designed to achieve one logical purpose. Typically, military strategic, operational or campaign plans will comprise multiple ‘lines of effort’ (LOE). They refer to conceptual approaches, not merely physical activity. For example, a LOE could be to restore essential services in a town. Official: “…used to focus efforts towards establishing operational and strategic conditions by linking multiple tasks and missions” (ADF, 2018 p. 2-14).
Literature-plus  (introduced in this thesis). A literacy analytical lens which is also informed by scientific approaches to language and knowing, such as linguistics, cognitive science and other social science methodologies.
Lithosphere (geology, earth science). Earth’s crust; rocks.
Love labour (care ethic, social justice, equality studies Kathleen Lynch). “…the emotional and other work oriented to the enrichment and enablement of others, and the bond between self and others. … All love labour involves care work, but not all care work involves love labour” (Lynch 2009 p.413).
Main effort  (Military) Derives from the German word ‘schwerpunkt’ or ‘main focus.’  Australian definition: “A concentration of forces or means, in a particular area, time and phase of an operation, where a commander seeks to bring about a decision” (ADF, 2019). To elaborate, it means...  “concentrating efforts on achieving objectives that lead to victory…. Of all the actions going on… we recognize one as the most critical to success at that moment…. The main effort receives priority for support of any kind… a harmonizing force for a subordinate’s initiative…Faced with a decision, we ask ourselves: How can I best support the main effort?... There can only be one main effort… The main effort should be directed against enemy weakness, not enemy strength” (SWJ 2018).
Mass mortality events (MME)  (ecology). A sudden mass death of a particular species. “…rapidly occurring catastrophic demographic events that punctuate background mortality levels. Individual MMEs are staggering in their observed magnitude: removing more than 90% of a population, resulting in the death of more than a billion individuals, or producing 700 million tons of dead biomass in a single event” (Fey, Siepielski et al. 2015).
Master story

 (ecofeminism, Val Plumwood). Refers to the philosophy or outlook which has shaped modern western industrial society. It involves a hierarchical system whereby elites hold the ‘master identity’ and take responsibility for defining all forms of ‘other.’ The master story is characterised as oppressive because it does not allow nature or ‘other’ to exist on its own terms, rather the ‘others’ story is what the master wants it to be:

Otherness is destroyed… a slave world, which does not answer back as it no longer has a voice and language of its own (Plumwood 1993 p.190).

Reason and rationality are conceived in mathematical or scientific terms, and emotion or empathy are regarded as irrational. Nature is seen as an inert material, which exists only to serve the master.

Material Security

(introduced in this thesis).  ‘Material’ refers to the goods and natural resources (for example, food, timber, steel, fuel, fibre, minerals, paper and so on) that assist human societies and the nation-state to function at a practical level. While access to material security is often a function of the economy, nation-states have high-level responsibilities for facilitating the capacity for citizens and the state to achieve material security. In practical terms, this can involve utilising natural resources found within the nation-state, but in the era of globalised supply chains, often natural resources are sourced from elsewhere. This ‘elsewhere’ aspect introduces trade, IR and security dimensions. In this thesis, it is proposed that maintaining material security systems can impose a systems maintenance (G) burden on the nation-state and often its defence and security assets.
Meeting well  (ecofeminism, by Donna Haraway, further developed by Cecilia Åsberg, among others). Etiquette for how to interact with ‘others’ in a highly entangled existence. It is not hierarchical, nor imposing, but rather allows the ‘other’ to speak for itself.  It considers the affective and ethical aspects of relations, for example, the pain an animal undergoing laboratory testing might feel. Respect, and even care, is extended to the other, but always in a position of awareness that one cannot know the ‘other’ – one can only encounter it in a gentle, curious way that does not cause harm. (Haraway 2008, Åsberg, Koobak et al. 2011, Haraway 2016)
Military appreciation process (MAP)  (military). See ‘Joint Military Appreciation Process,’ JMAP.

Military industrial complex (MIC)

(critical security studies, international relations, politics). Refers to those companies, research institutions and other entities involved in the manufacture, supply and trade of military equipment, as well as politicians, bureaucrats and other official and community figures who benefit from MIC investment.  The term was first used by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s in his 1961 farewell speech, when he reflected upon the rapid expansion of the US armaments industry under his Presidency. Although not written by Eisenhower, his speech warned of a corrupting influence:

We recognize the imperative need for this development.  Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society.  In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of un-warranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist (Eisenhower 1987 p.150).

Now part of modern lexicon, the role of the MIC at national and global levels been under has been under continued critique since then, with awareness of this risk informing US and global public policy discourse. This has been paired with scathing commentary by some defence commentators, who write: “fulminations against the military-industrial complex have become a lazy, hackneyed, histrionic reflex” which incorrectly associate Eisenhower with peaceful aims, have a cult-like conspiracy theory nature which characterise MIC as having an “octopus-like evil” influence in encouraging war for profits sake (Greenberg 2011).

Moral forces, morale

 (military). Those factors which impact military personnel motivation, cohesion and sense of wellbeing and passion; often coined as a soldier’s “will to fight.” Factors are multitudinous but can include the rationale for fighting (e.g. political, sociocultural, religious or justice); trust and loyalty to a person’s specific military unit and colleagues; satisfaction with the morality of military objectives and activities; and the physical, psychological wellbeing of military personal (Ulio 1941, Cohen 2015).

Nationally determined contributions (NDCs)

 (climate policy; 2015 Paris Agreement). This refers to the plan developed by each country to reduce their GHG emissions, taking into account their domestic circumstances and capabilities. The Paris Agreement (Article 4, paragraph 2) requires each Party to prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions (NDCs) that it intends to achieve.

National support base (NSB)

(military). Envisioned as a secure area, in which civilian manufacturing and support to a war effort occur.

Natural climate solutions (NCS) (see also the forgotten solution)

 (ecology, environmental advocacy). Refers to “conservation, restoration, and improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands” (Griscom, Adams et al. 2017).

New war

 (feminist international relations, Mary Kaldor). Mary Kaldor’s original New War thesis referred to conflicts involving non-state actors, crime and a shift towards the targeting of civilians and identity politics (Kaldor 1998). Her updated or ‘new’ New War concept links socio-cultural identity and related political discourse more tightly into the realm of security (Kaldor 2012). She suggests the world has now entered “an era of long-term low-level informal violence” (Kaldor 2012 p.210).  

Non-linear warfare

(military). “The simultaneous deployment of multiple, complementary military and non-military warfare tactics. A nonlinear war is fought when a state employs conventional and irregular military forces in conjunction with psychological, economic, political, and cyber assaults. Confusion and disorder ensue when weaponized information exacerbates the perception of insecurity in the populace as political, social, and cultural identities are pitted against one another” (Stowell 2018).
Non-locality (eco-philosophy, Timothy Morton). One of the five hyperobject characteristics. The hyperobject is distributed across such vast geographical areas that it cannot be perceived in its entirety. This non-locality characteristic disables people’s ability to make easy cause and effect associations.

Nurturing capital

(care ethics, social justice, equality studies, Kathleen Lynch). At the nation-state level, the way in which the state cares for its people – through ensuring an equitable society, quality of life and opportunities to reach human potential. It directly affects the strength of the State (Lynch 2009).

Operational art

(military). Official definition: “The skilful employment of military forces to attain strategic goals through the design, organisation, sequencing and direction of campaigns and major operations.” (ADF, 2018, p.2-3). Operational art translates strategy into operational and ultimately tactical actions. The word ‘art’ is deliberately used to differentiate this analytical activity from ‘military science’ and to emphasise the aspect of creative problem-solving. Australian military theorists emphasise that operational art must respond to the dynamic and unpredictable nature of war.  Michael Evans, for example, points to planners being able to anticipate the multiple way in which various factors and risks interconnect, and that ultimately skill in operational art is the capacity to create ‘a plan that works’ (Evans 2008). Brigadier General C.R. Smith cautions that operational art should not be prescriptive, (like a schedule or a list of tasks) but rather provide governing logic, and a framework for action, which creates space for decision-makers to exploit changing circumstances or new opportunities that arise (Smith 2011).


(feminism). Historical: A system of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is reckoned through the male line. A system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it. (Dictionary, Oxford University Press 2016). 21st century: The term used to describe the society in which we live today, characterised by current and historic unequal power relations between women and men whereby women are systematically disadvantaged and oppressed. This…is most noticeable in women’s underrepresentation in key state institutions, in decision-making positions and in employment and industry (London Feminist Network 2016).


(Earth Science). Soil


(eco- philosophy, Timothy Morton). One of the five hyperobject characteristics. In the way the moon looks different according to its ‘phase,’ humans only see ‘phases’ or glimpses of the hyperobject at any time. The scale of the hyperobject means humans cannot determine which phase state they are seeing, or how many there are. The hyperobject is inaccessible.

Pink swan

 (introduced in this thesis). A term introduced in this thesis to describe the macro-phenomena of a new worldview emerging from both academic research in women’s studies and feminism, plus a wider global social movement relating to female empowerment. It is distinguished from critical inquiry of historical or extant socio and cultural structures in that its focus is not upon ‘what is wrong’ but rather ‘what could be.’ It involves new approaches to 21st Century problems that that emerge predominantly from women.

Planetary Boundaries.

 An approach to define an ecologically ‘safe operating space’ for humanity on Earth. It identifies nine categories and sets boundaries for each: climate change; biodiversity loss; nitrogen cycle; phosphorus; ocean acidification; land use; freshwater; ozone depletion; atmospheric aerosols; and chemical pollution. (Rockstrom, Steffen et al. 2009, Steffen, Richardson et al. 2015, O’Neill, Fanning et al. 2018)


 (new materialism, agential realism, OOO, eco-philosophy) (Bennet, 2009; Barad, 2003; Harman, 1999). Used in this thesis to denote a philosophical outlook that is not centred around human-beings, but rather views humans as part of larger ecological systems and matter. It is noted that within some OOO literature (as discussed in Chapter Four) the idea can be interpreted as suggesting humans have equal status with all non-human entities, and that taken literally ‘post-human’ might insinuate humans are erased from the analysis, (they become merely another species). To clarify ‘post-human’ in this thesis means post-human-centred perspectives and approaches.


 (humanities). Approaches which seek to bridge methods of conducting critical analysis of language and meaning with the ‘external world’ – science, the environment or current affairs; it is a form of interdisciplinarity.


(literature). Literature studies which incorporate multi-media and technology dimensions (Severin 2016) (See also the different term Literature-Plus)

Principles of war (POW)

 (military). Planning principles that emerge from the generic study of successful warfare, they are used to guide military planning.  There are multiple versions globally, the Australian Army Principles of War are: 1.Selection and maintenance of the aim; 2.Concentration of force (mass); 3.Cooperation; 4.Economy of effort; 5.Security; 6.Offensive action; 7.Surprise; 8.Flexibility; 9.Sustainment; 10.Maintenance of morale; 11.Understanding war and warfare (Australian Army 2017 pp.16-18). (Explained further in Appendix V). 

Prismatic analysis

 (introduced in this thesis). A multidisciplinary method which involves examining a set issue from as many disciplinary approaches as possible, whereby the disciplines or angles selected bear upon the issue being examined.

Protest masculinity

 (masculinity or men’s studies, gender studies) The idea of men performing and claiming masculine status and power without changing their actual political or socially validated manhood status. Introduced by Connell in 1995, and developed thereafter (Connell 1995, Connell and Connell 2000, Walker 2006).

Real options analysis

(Finance) (Black and Scholes 1973, Merton 1973). A method for decision-making in environments of deep uncertainty which won the 1997 Nobel Prize for Economics. Traditional risk planning estimated investment outcomes by drawing upon known trajectories, while eliminating outlier possibilities. Real options analysis takes the opposite approach; it “seeks out risky situations” (De Neufville 2003 p.31). This keeps decision options and pathways open, such that if there were large fluctuations, choices which may have initially seemed unviable, may become newly viable, and even lucrative. It is now applied across many disciplinary fields, including climate and environmental risk (Dobes 2008, Linquiti and Vonortas 2012, Whitten, Hertzler et al. 2012, Nelson, Howden et al. 2013, Woodward, Kapelan et al. 2014, Buurman and Babovic 2016).

Relations of care (also practices of care)

 (feminist security studies, Fiona Robinson). The inter-personal and social networks, and the activities involved in providing care. “…relations and practices of care and responsibility are the basic substance of morality… a central feature of all human social life (Robinson 2011 p.161).

Representative concentration pathways (RCP)

 (climate science, IPCC AR5). RCP represent scenarios for future atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Defined by their total radiative forcing (cumulative measure of human emissions of GHGs from all sources expressed in Watts per square meter) pathway and level by 2100. Each RCP could result from different combinations of economic, technological, demographic, policy, and institutional futures. There are four pathways: RCP8.5, RCP6, RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 (RCP2.6 is also referred to as RCP3-PD, where PD stands for Peak and Decline). Low numbers correspond with more rapid reductions in GHG, high RCP represent slower (and more dangerous) response (IPCC 2014).


(humanities). Field of study aimed at analysing the way authors or orators manage to provoke determined effects on their addressees.

Safe Earth (see also Hothouse Earth, Figure 1)

(climate science, science policy). A colloquial term for ‘stabilized earth’ as described by (Steffen, Rockström et al. 2018). Contrasts to the alternate hothouse Earth trajectory. The term ‘safe’ also connects to research on a ‘safe’ operating space for humanity (Rockstrom, Steffen et al. 2009); work on dangerous thresholds (Lenton 2011), and analysis on the need to limit global warming to 1.5̊C degrees (rather than a 2̊C degrees) so as to avoid ‘dangerous’ climate change (IPCC 2018).    

 Scientific method

  (science). Introduced by Aristotle and developed since. Broadly the process is: ask question; conduct background research; construct hypothesis; test with an experiment; analyse results; determine if hypothesis is true or false; and report results. In the post-enlightenment period, scientific methods link rationality to evidence, and discount affective knowing. This has since been revealed as flawed given affective dimensions, cognitive bias, structural socio-economic issues and other factors can skew the framing of hypothesises, or influence what evidence is made available to the researcher. Post-normal scientific research seeks to address these barriers and incorporate them into the scientific method.


 (International Relations, critical security studies, Ole Wæver).  Wæver first proposed securitisation as being a speech act, which introduced complicated power dimensions, such as proposing to speak for all of society, plus “moving issues into a security frame so as to achieve effects different from those that would ensue if handled in a nonsecurity mode.” Such “effects” might relate to resourcing, prioritation and power. It has become a wide field of scholarship associated with seeking to understand the process of, motivations, advantages, disadvantages and complications involved, when general social issues, like human rights, refugees, immigration or infectious disease are categorised as security concerns. (Wæver 1993)

 Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015-2030

  (United Nations office for disaster risk reduction). The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with others including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.

Shared fate

 (feminist international relations, Sigal Ben-Porath). When considering how to unify warring and disputing parties within the same geographic area, a ‘shared fate’ approach attempts to create new pathways to unity and citizenship. While cultural, tribal and political identity may vary, it emphasises what people have in common, with this being a future-oriented approach (Ben-Porath 2011). 

Slow violence

 (security and literature, Rob Nixon). Violence that occurs gradually and out of sight, a violence of delayed destruction that is dispersed across time and space, an attritional violence that is typically not viewed as violence at all (Nixon, 2011 p.130).

Small war

 (military.) Between State and non-State actors.

Soft power

 (international relations, foreign policy). The capacity to persuade and influence others through the power of attraction and ideas; to achieve desired outcomes without the use of force or coercion (Nye 1990).

Soil water (see also virtual water)

 (agriculture, hydrology). Refers to how much moisture in soil is required to produce certain amounts of agricultural products (Falkenmark, 2000).

Stabilisation operations

(international relations, military, humanitarianism). A form of authorised international intervention to assist fragile, stressed or failing nation-states.  Approaches are tailored to each context, but generally aim to help restore legitimate governing capacity and to help create the conditions that enable sustainable peace and security. Typically involves multi-agency approaches to achieving political settlements; justice and reconciliation; security; humanitarian assistance and social wellbeing; governance and participation; economic stabilization and infrastructure repair or support. Notably, climate and environmental change issues are not incorporated into US DOD Stability planning doctrine (US DOD 2016). General ‘stabilisation’ literature, while addressing immediate impacts of extreme weather events and HADR tasking, rarely address longer-term climate or environmental aspects of instability (Hicks and Ridge 2007, Rietjens and Bollen 2008) There has also been criticism that some approaches are oriented towards support for US-centred neoliberal economic systems, rather than the needs of the fragile state (Morrissey 2015).  

Straits of transition

 (introduced in this thesis). Creative term to describe the likely difficult and tumultuous period whereby human socio-economic systems transition into zero or low GHG emissions structures, ecological balance and hyperthreat durable socio-cultural-political systems, while also facing increased global warming impacts.


(Military, international relations, sport, management and business studies). Originally a military term, for example van Clausewitz writes “strategy forms the plan of the war” (Clausewitz 1832 p.241), now widely used to describe any plan to achieve a long-term or overall aim. Henry Mintzberg explains that strategy can be either a plan; a pattern in action; a position or perspective, and exists on a continuum stretching from planned; entrepreneurial; ideological; umbrella; process; unconnected; consensus or imposed (Mintzberg 2007). Strategic theory and strategic studies are vast areas of scholarship and in this thesis only some commonly used military strategic concepts and terms are utilised:  (1) That strategy involves considering ‘ways’ and ‘means’ to achieve ‘ends’ – which refers to methods and resources to achieve an end-state. (2) That developing a strategy typically involves a ‘SWOT analysis’ – an assessment of one’s position within the broader environment to consider relative Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Other specific military threat analytical methods are applied to CEC, in a modified way, as part of strategy development.

Surprise management

(risk and disaster management). “Knowledge, skills, and attributes that can read inconceivability and unthinkable impossibilities” (Farazmand 2007 p.156).

Systems maintenance

 (energy strategy, Doug Stokes). Refers to activities undertaken by a nation-state’s security sector to ensure their citizens and nation’s material security (G) needs, especially for fossil fuels supplies, are met. As Doug Stokes explains, while post-Cold war US statecraft sought to create a liberal rules-based order based upon democratic capitalism, as this system became more vulnerable to disruptions in energy supply, there was an increased ‘global commons’ argument to use tools of force, like the CIA and US military, to ‘maintain the system.’  The US, and much of the rest of the world, depends upon a stable energy supply. Thus, in American statecraft, systems maintenance – the use of security forces to achieve material security –  is understood or framed as dutiful service to the US and the broader world (Stokes 2007).

Temporal undulation

 (eco- philosophy, Timothy Morton). One of the five hyperobject characteristics. Hyperobjects operate on planetary, not human, timeframes. This overwhelms human cognitive abilities: ‘the timescale is a Medusa that turns us to stone’ (Morton 2013 p.58).

Third offset strategy

 (military). US military strategy launched in 2014 to gain advantage primarily through technological advantage, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI); autonomous systems, robots; cyber and big data; undersea warfare; human-machine teaming and munitions delivered at supersonic speeds.

Thucydides's trap

  (security studies, military history, Graham Allison). “…the natural, inevitable discombobulation that occurs when a rising power threatens to displace a ruling power” (Allison 2017 p.xvi) On writing about the Peloponnesian War that occurred in Athens in the fifth century BCE and devastated ancient Greece, historian Thucydides explained: “It was the rise of Athens and the fear that this instilled in Sparta that made war inevitable.”  Allison notes that this dynamic has occurred 16 times over the past 500 years, and that 12 of the 16 times it resulted in war.  Allison writes, “Thucydides identified two key drivers of this dynamic: the rising power’s growing entitlement, sense of its importance, and demand for greater say and sway, on the one hand, and the fear, insecurity, and determination to defend the status quo this engenders in the established power, on the other” (Allison 2015). The term has been used to describe risk around China’s growing power and the US’s relative decline.

Tribal discourse

  (introduced in this thesis). Seeks to operationalise continuous discourse to assemble and listen to all vocational, institutional and governmental actors whose activities bear upon CEC threat and security dimensions. Canvasses 11 generic planetary, human and state security ‘tribes.’ This is done in Chapters 10 and 11 of this thesis.

UN Decade on ecosystem restoration 2021 – 2030 (See also Natural Climate Solutions and the Forgotten solution).

  (Ecosystem and agricultural science and policy). Aims to massively scale up the restoration of degraded and destroyed ecosystems as a proven measure to fight the climate crisis and enhance food security, water supply and biodiversity. Led by UN Environment and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The idea was initially proposed by El Salvador (Government of El Salvador 2018, UN General Assembly 2019). 

Unrestricted warfare

 (military). A futures concept developed by Chinese Military Generals whereby the range of mechanisms used to defeat an enemy is not limited to conventional military approaches but will include financial, trade, cultural and environmental tactics among others (Qiao and Wang 2002).


  (military). Troops that move ahead of the main military force, typically assigned reconnaissance tasks to identify threats, obstacles or problems that may impact the main force. Often undertake security clearing and obstacle removal tasks.

Virtual water (see also soil water)

  (hydrology, science policy, environmental security). Used to describe water which is embodied in agricultural products. For example, one tonne of grain requires 1000 tonnes of water to produce it (Allan 1998 p.545). Less commonly known, but using the same rationale, the  term, “soil water” (Falkenmark 2000) refers to how much moisture in soil is required to produce certain amounts of agricultural products.


 (eco- philosophy, Timothy Morton). One of the five hyperobject characteristics. Refers to the honey-like nature of a hyperobject—it ‘sticks’ to humans but also changes shape and form as people respond and interact with it. Also, fog-like, it is infused through everything.

Wake Force

(introduced in this thesis – Appendix VI). A proposed new security/military capability with a specialistic ‘human dimension’ focus which undertakes peacekeeping and population protection tasks. It is envisioned as infantry-based, with policing capabilities and a roughly 50% male-female mix. It would incorporate the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) aspects but also have expertise in other gendered issues and in areas like human trafficking and child-protection. Ideally its members would have cultural and language proficiencies (Boulton, 2017 pp 172-3).

Water stress

 (hydrology, science policy).       “Results from an imbalance between water use and water resources... causes deterioration of fresh water resources in terms of quantity (aquifer over-exploitation, dry rivers, etc.) and quality (eutrophication, organic matter pollution, saline intrusion, etc” (World Water Council 1999).        

Water scarcity

(hydrology, science policy). The point at which the aggregate impact of all users impinges on the supply or quality of water, under prevailing institutional arrangements, to the extent that the demand by all sectors, including the environment, cannot be satisfied fully. A relative concept which may be a social construct (a product of affluence, expectations and customary behaviour) or the consequence of altered supply patterns - stemming from climate change for example (UN Water 2014).

Water security

 (hydrology, science policy, environmental security). “…the capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability” (UN Water 2013 p.1)

Water risk

(hydrology, science policy, environmental security). The World Resources Institute discusses five categories of water risk. Their online interactive global water risk mapping tool, ‘The Aqueduct Atlas’ helps users to navigate through all the variables that influence levels of water risk (World Resources Institute 2013).

Water crisis

 (hydrology, science policy, environmental security). Refers to the convergence of growing population and growing freshwater demand. “The world's population tripled in the 20th century, the use of renewable water resources has grown six-fold. Within the next fifty years, the world population will increase by another 40 to 50 %. This population growth - coupled with industrialization and urbanization - will result in an increasing demand for water and will have serious consequences on the environment” (World Water Council 1999).


(feminism, women’s activism, Jessica Eaton). “When someone responds to a difficult issue or question with a counter issue or question that completely derails the conversation” (Eaton 2018). The term intends to capture the way in which the ‘what about men?’ question can silence discourse on women’s issues. Eaton reports this question was disproportionately raised in response to her research on women victims, as compared to her work on male victims. In combination with a heightened level of hostile language towards women-only work, ‘whataboutery,’ Eaton suggests, is itself a manifestation of gender inequality.

Wicked problems

(design and urban planning). Refers to complex public policy issues, which are highly multi-faceted, and are perceived differently by numerous actors or agencies. Comprise ten characteristics, but in general they “defy efforts to delineate their boundaries and to identify their causes, and thus to expose their problematic nature” (Rittel and Webber 1973).